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Bone Marrow transplant

Posted by : Prince, 11 Feb 2016 08:53 AM
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Bone marrow transplants can be used to treat patients with are life-threatening blood cancers

 

What is a bone marrow or stem cell transplant?

 

A bone marrow or stem cell transplant is a process to replace unhealthy bone marrow with healthy bone marrow. Bone marrow transplants can be used to treat patients with are life-threatening blood cancers like leukemia, diseases which result in bone marrow failure like aplastic anemia and also other immune system diseases or genetic diseases like thalassaemia.

 

Can you explain in detail?

 

Bone marrow transplant is a way of giving very high dose chemotherapy, sometimes with whole body radiotherapy. This treatment aims to try to cure some types of cancer, such as leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Because you can have higher doses of chemotherapy as well as new immunity to fight against cancer with this treatment, there may be a better chance of curing the cancer than with standard treatment. Here, bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells are given back to rescue you from the effects of your high dose treatment. A transplant using donated bone marrow from another person is called an allograft. A transplant using your own marrow is called an autologous transplant.

 

What is an Autologous Stem Cell Transplant?

 

Autologous transplant. Doctors call this an AUTO transplant. This type of stem cell transplant may also be called high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue.
In an AUTO transplant, you get your own stem cells after doctors treat the cancer. First, your health care team collects stem cells from your blood and freezes them. Next, you have powerful chemotherapy, and rarely, radiation therapy. Then, your health care team thaws your frozen stem cells. They put them back in your blood through a tube placed in a vein (IV).
It takes about 24 hours for your stem cells to reach the bone marrow. Then they start to grow, multiply, and help the marrow make healthy blood cells again.

 

What is an Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant?

 

Allogeneic transplantation. Doctors call this an ALLO transplant.
In an ALLO transplant, you get another person’s stem cells. It is important to find someone whose bone marrow matches yours. This is because you have certain proteins on your white blood cells called human leukocyte antigens (HLA). The best donor has HLA proteins as much like yours as possible.
Matching proteins make a serious condition called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) less likely. In GVHD, healthy cells from the transplant attack your cells. A brother or sister may be the best match. But another family member or volunteer might work.
Once you find a donor, you receive chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy. Next, you get the other person’s stem cells through a tube placed in a vein (IV). The cells in an ALLO transplant are not typically frozen. So, doctors can give you the cells as soon after chemotherapy or radiation therapy as possible.


 

Umbilical cord blood transplant. This may be an option if you cannot find a donor match. Cancer centers around the world use cord blood.

 

Parent-child transplant and haplotype mismatched transplant. These types of transplants are being used more commonly. The match is 50%, instead of near 100%. Your donor might be a parent, child, brother, or sister.

 

Should a person undergo an Autologous or Allogenic Stem Cell Transplant?

 

Whether you should undergo autologous or allogeneic transplant depends on the type of the disease and also information from the evidence based studies. These days, doctors generally use stem cell transplants (also called peripheral blood stem cell transplants) more commonly than bone marrow transplants.

 

How long will a person have to be in the hospital for my transplant?

 

Stay in the hospital: For autologous transplant 3 to 4 weeks and for Allogeneic transplant 6 weeks

 

Is there any risk to stem cell donation?

 

There is no risk to stem cell or bone marrow donor

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