In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a process designed to enhance the likelihood of conception in couples where an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body. IVF is a major treatment for infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. The process involves monitoring a woman's ovulatory process, removing ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilize them in a fluid medium in a laboratory in controlled conditions.
The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to the patient's uterus with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy.
Intracytoplasmic sperm Injection (ICSI) is recommended for couples in whom the sperm characteristics are too poor to perform traditional IVF, high levels of sperm antibodies are present, prior IVF attempts have failed. One sperm is injected into the egg using a special microscope. ICSI can dramatically improve the likelihood of fertilization when male infertility disorders such as low sperm counts, low sperm motility or high number of abnormally shaped sperm are present. (Fig-5)