The department of Pediatric Nephrology deals with kidney problems of children. Children suffering from kidney related ailments need to be seen early, diagnosed soon and appropriate treatment commenced earnestly to protect the long term kidney function. Children also have many kidney problems that may have an effect on kidney function in childhood as well as in adult life. In extreme cases, they may cause lead to kidney failure in adult life. India has a very high incidence of adult kidney failure (chronic) and the aim should be to detect conditions in children that may lead to these complications later on in life and treat them appropriately.
Posterior urethral valve obstruction: This narrowing or obstruction of the urethra affects only boys. It can be diagnosed before the baby is born or just after and is treated with surgery.
Fetal hydronephrosis - This enlargement of one or both of the kidneys is caused by either an obstruction in the developing urinary tract or a condition called vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in which urine abnormally flows backward (or refluxes) from the bladder into the ureters.
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) - This is a condition in which many fluid-filled cysts develop in both kidneys. The cysts can multiply so much and grow so large that they lead to kidney failure. Most forms of PKD are inherited.
Multicystic kidney disease (MKD) - This is when large cysts develop in a kidney that hasn't developed properly, eventually causing it to stop working. (While PKD always affects both kidneys, MKD usually affects just one kidney.
Other problems that could affect children: Renal tubular acidosis, Wilms tumor, Glomerulonephritis, Nephrotic syndrome, High blood pressure (hypertension), Kidney stones, Nephritis.
- Ultrasound - A renal ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses sound waves to make images of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
- Computerized tomography (CAT) scan - An abdominal CAT scan is a painless test that uses a specialized X-ray machine to take pictures of a patient's organs, blood vessels, and lymph nodes.
- Renal nuclear scan - A renal nuclear scan involves having special radioactive material injected into a vein.