Dr. Anjali Shetty

Consultant Microbiologist



Clinical Services

We provide telephonic advice to ensure selection of the most appropriate test or specimen types for particular patients and assist with the interpretation of results.  We also provide guidance on the clinical management of individual cases.

Reference Services


  • Moulds
  • Yeasts
  • Dimorphic fungic

Reference antifungal drug susceptibility testing of yeasts and moulds

These tests are performed on all yeasts and moulds (excluding dermatophytes). Anidulafungin, amphotericin, caspofungin, fluconazole, flucytosine, isavuconazole, itraconazole, micafungin, posaconazole, voriconazole

Historical Examination

Histopathology of specimens and slides along with special fungal stains

Molecular Assays

Pneumocystis jiroveci (PJP/PCP) PCR must be done on respiratory samples. Preferably BAL and induced sputum

Serological Tests

Beta 1-3 Glucan antigen detection for invasive fungal infections.

(NB: this test has a very high negative predictive value)

Cryptococcal antigen test Serum/CSF

Histoplasma urinary antigen

Test Type TAT (hours)

  • Aspergillus antigen (galactomannan)  100
  • Aspergillus PCR - 48
  • Beta 1-3 Glucan 60
  • Cryptococcus antigen 24
  • Histoplasma antigen testing - 60
  • Isavuconazole HPLC - one week
  • Itraconazole assay 120
  • Mould antifungal susceptibilities 120
  • Mould identificationvariable  >15 days
  • PJP PCR 24
  • Posaconazole assay 120
  • Voriconazole assay 120
  • Yeast antifungal susceptibilities 72
  • Yeast identification  48

How to make the best use of our service?

Please use and complete fully the standard request forms, available on the web site under the heading above.

  • Form: Fungal Identification/Susceptibility testing.
  • Preferably send slopes of cultures and not plates.


Serological tests:

  • Please supply 5ml of blood in a yellow top/red top tube.


Antifungal assays:

  • Please supply 4 ml blood in EDTA tube (purple top) 15 mins prior to next dose.

If the sample cannot reach the lab within 2 hours of collection, please separate the plasma in a microfuge tube and transport on dry ice. Do not use serum separator tubes with a gel plug for azole drug.

Itraconazole Pre-dose after 7 days

Posaconazole Pre-dose after 7 days

Voriconazole Pre-dose after 7 days


  • The trough level should stay above 0.5 mg/L.
  • Less than 0.5mg/L is a low concentration.
  • There may be toxicity issues at higher concentrations (>4 mg/L). Liver function tests should be monitored during prolonged courses.


  • The absorption and metabolism of voriconazole will vary from patient to patient. The voriconazole trough concentration should be maintained above 1.0 mg/L. Outcomes for disseminated infections are better when levels are >2.0 mg/L.
  • Levels above 6.0 mg/L are more likely to lead to liver toxicity. Levels above 10.0 mg/L should be avoided.


  • The absorption and metabolism of posaconazole will vary from patient to patient. Recommended trough concentrations are: 0.7 mg/L for prophylaxis and >1.0 mg/L for invasive disease.

Training Courses

We organise regular training courses on the identification of pathogenic fungi. Full details are available on request.

External Quality Assurance Schemes In Mycology

We participate in two EQAS schemes. One from the College of American Pathologists and the other from PGI Chandigarh.

Name of the Organism Type of Patient Age/Sex Accession No Site of Infection(Specimen)
Aspergillus lentulus OPD 22/M 545190 Corneal tissue
Aspergillus sydowii OPD 60/F 166594 Tissue
Aspergillus terreus OPD 26/F 178462 Corneal interface scraping
Aspergillus tamari OPD 14/M 183495 Right eye corneal scrapping
Rhizopus Arrhizus OPD 55/M 170533 Left nasal cavity mucosa
Rhizopus microsporus IPD 42/M 148244 Visceral pleura
Fusarium solani OPD 50/F 184656 Left eye corneal scraping
Scedosporium graphium stage IPD 58/F 101995 Tissue from left nostril
Trichophyton rubrum OPD 29/F 182829 Skin scraping
Schizophyllum commune IPD 39/M 138762 Right ethmoidal bulla
Paecilomyces variotii OPD 74/M 549448 Left vitreous aspirate
Epicoccum nigrum OPD 27/M 174417 Corneal button
Exophiala dermatitidis OPD 79/M 169047 Vitreous tap
Cladophialophora bantiana OPD 57/M 165818 Pus
Syncephalastrum racemosum OPD 36/M 514422 Osteomyelytic calcaneal bone
Cunninghamella bertholletiae OPD 30/M 465234 Tissue (brain abscess)
Licthemia corymbefera IPD 12/M 134229 Intra-orbital tissue
Saksenea vasiformis OPD 50/F 170137 Mucosa from sphenoid
Pseudallescheria boydii IPD 63/M 146279 Tissue from right maxillary sinus
Penicillium citrinum OPD 48/M 168065 Nasal polyp tissue
Histoplasma capsulatum IPD 42/F 135130 Skin Biopsy
Conidiobolus coronatus OPD 41/M 169731 Left Nasal Tissue 
Rhinocladiella mackenziei IPD 65/M 104793 Brain Soil
Zygosaccharomyces species IPD 63/M 107498 Left Leg Post Wound Swab
Exophiala spinifera OPD 37/M 187689 Swelling Over Left Ankle (Tissue & Pus)
Acremonium species OPD 67/F 187791 Left Eye Vitreous Aspiraet
Cryptococcus uniguttulatus OPD 18/F 192363 CSF
Coccidiodes immitis OPD 26/M 195083 Aspirate
Phaeoacremonium parasiticum OPD 72/F 196732 Tissue From Wound Foot
Rhizopus homothalicus OPD 59/M 197652 Maxillary Sinus
Madurella grisea IPD 62/M 128227 Tissue From Left Ankle Calcaneum Cuboid
Curvularia lunata OPD 80/M 175645 Corneal Scraping
Fusarium chlamydosporum complex OPD 64/M 176583 Bronchial Alveolar Lavage
Apophysomyces variabilis IPD 26/M 144760 Right Tissue Lower Leg
Hortaea werneckii OPD 74/M 188026 Sphenoid Sinus Tissue
Trichophyton interdigitale OPD 44/F 162909 Skin Scraping
Fusarium dimerum OPD 18/M 193073 Pleural Fluid
Fusarium proliferatum OPD 52/M 175093 Right Eye Corneal Scraping
Pythium insidiosum OPD 48/M 195230 Corneal Button

Fungal Identification

Kindly download the form, fill and submit it along with the sample. Click here to download form.

Guidelines for sending fungal cultures

  • If you are sending multiple isolates, separate form should be filled for each isolate.
  • Culture should be sent in the plastic tube containing thick agar slants and a plate containing thick agar base, both properly sealed with parafilm.
  • Please send all cultures by speed post or courier and ensure they are well packed to avoid breakage of tubes or plates.
  • Each isolate should preferably be sent in duplicates after proper labelling.
  • Ensure purity of cultures before sending.
  • SENSITITRE MIC FOR FUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY (This is for yeasts including Cryptococcus)
  • AFST- BROTH MICRO DILUTION (This is for molds and Trichosporon spp)
  • ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY YEAST (This is done on VITEK, only for the common Candida spp)


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Postal Address:

Dr. Anjali Shetty

P. D. Hinduja National Hospital and MRC, Microbiology Department 9, Takandas Kataria Marg, Mahim West Mumbai- 400016. Maharashtra.

For further information please contact : 022-24447793


We will carry out the identification on a strictly confidential basis. Strains sent for identification will normally be destroyed after completion of the task. However strains of interest will be accessed.